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OAuth 2.0 is an open standard for authorization that allows third-party services to exchange web resources on behalf of a user. It's designed to work over HTTPS and provides secure, delegated access to server resources without sharing the user's credentials. Instead of using credentials, OAuth 2.0 employs access tokens issued by the authorization server at the resource owner's approval. These tokens grant the third-party application limited access to the user's protected resources hosted by the resource server.

OAuth 2.0 is widely used for online authorization in modern web and mobile applications, allowing for seamless integration of third-party services, such as social logins or accessing cloud storage, without compromising security. The protocol supports several grant types catering to different client types and authorization scenarios, including authorization code, implicit, password, and client credentials, making it versatile and adaptable.

By abstracting the security details and simplifying the authorization process, OAuth 2.0 has become a fundamental component in enabling a secure and interconnected web, where users can interact with various services without repeatedly logging in or sharing sensitive information.